Tag Archives: CAS

World 100m champion set for return after serving 18-month ban

World 100m champion Christian Coleman, is set to return to running after serving his 18-month ban for breaching anti-doping whereabouts rules.

The 25 year-old plans to race for the first time in nearly two years at New York’s Millrose Games next month which will start on 29 January and it will be his first since February 2020 after the pandemic and the anti-doping suspension curtailed him.

“I think it will be emotional to get out there and finally display my talents again,” the indoor 60m world record holder said by telephone from Lexington, Kentucky, where he trains.

Colemen had been given a two-year suspension by Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) before it was reduced to 18 months by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

Sex verification in sport: the sidelining of intersex athletes

Sex verification in sport has been debated for decades, with the likes of Ewa Kłobukowska and Caster Semenya being banned from women’s sports in the process. As more athletes were prohibited from competing at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics earlier this year, the debate is far from over.

Regulations have evolved over the years, as our understanding of sex and intersexuality progresses. Sex verification was initially in the form of physical examinations during the 1960s, then replaced by genetic tests. At the 2012 London Olympics, a new regulation was put in place, whereby eligibility to compete in the female classification depended on an athlete’s testosterone levels.

The legislation was hugely unpopular, with the appeal of Indian sprinter Dutee Chand resulting in the regulation’s suspension. It was determined that there was insufficient evidence to show that elevated testosterone levels give athletes a sporting advantage. Testosterone can certainly induce muscle growth, but in many sports other skills, namely agility and coordination, shape the level of an athlete’s success.

As a result of Chand’s successful appeal, researchers funded by World Athletics, formerly known as the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), published studies claiming that higher testosterone levels confer a significant sporting advantage in 400m to 1-mile running events. Despite some criticising the integrity of the data, new regulations were implemented based on this evidence in 2018. It mandated female athletes with ‘Differences in Sex Development’ (DSDs) to lower their testosterone levels if they choose to compete in the female classification of such events.

The legislation was challenged by intersex athlete Caster Semenya back in May 2019: “Excluding female athletes or endangering our health solely because of our natural abilities puts World Athletics on the wrong side of history”.

In response, the regulations were upheld, as the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) ruled the differential treatment of intersex athletes “necessary, reasonable and proportionate”. At this year’s Tokyo Games, the eligibility of athletes was determined by individual sporting federations.

“Therefore, contrary to popular belief, sex is not binary. Such variations may be uncommon in the general population, but some have suggested that intersexuality is far more common amongst elite athletes”

Before proceeding any further, it should be pointed out that intersexuality is different to transgenderism. Intersex people are born with ambiguous sex, while transgender people feel their gender and sex are misaligned. Consequently, the regulations are different for the two situations, and this article focuses strictly on the former.

The science behind World Athletics’ legislation

It’s commonly accepted that gender is an individual choice of identification, while sex is an unalterable, congenital trait. The definition of sex is multi-faceted: genetic sex is the possession of XY chromosomes in males and XX chromosomes in females, gonadal sex is the possession of testes in males and ovaries in females, and anatomic sex is the possession of penises for males and vaginas for females.

In most cases, sex differentiation is straightforward: females will inherit XX chromosomes, which means they subsequently develop ovaries and a vagina, with the opposite being true for males.

However, in a minority of cases, some individuals can possess a mixture of both male and female biological traits. For example, they may have XX chromosomes and ovaries yet have external genitalia somewhat resembling a penis. These deviations from biological expectation are known as intersexuality, or DSDs. Therefore, contrary to popular belief, sex is not binary. Such variations may be uncommon in the general population, but some have suggested that intersexuality is far more common amongst elite athletes.

The newest World Athletics eligibility regulations only apply to intersex athletes. Non-intersex women with testosterone levels above the 5nmol/L limit are not required to lower their testosterone production in order to compete in the female category. Although it’s recognised that non-intersex women can also have elevated testosterone levels, especially those suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome or adrenal tumours, their levels rarely exceed the 5nmol/L limit. Furthermore, there is ambiguity in the regulations, such that intersex athletes with some specific DSD variations might arbitrarily be exempt too.

 What are the aims of the DSD regulations?

Records show that there is a performance difference between men and women in most sports. No doubt, non-physiological factors such as funding contribute to the gap, but biological factors undeniably play a role too. World Athletics believes that the higher testosterone levels in men are the main reason for their sporting advantage over females. However, this argument may be flawed given that higher testosterone levels only correlate with better performance in a limited range of running events.

“When athletes are segregated into male and female classifications, those in the middle of the spectrum, or those who are intersex, will inevitably be treated differently compared to non-intersex athletes”

The aim of the DSD regulations was not to verify sex; it was to distinguish athletes with a competitive advantage from those without. Yet, by permitting non-intersex female athletes to have a testosterone level exceeding the 5nmol/L limit, the governing body is not separating athletes into the male and female classifications solely according to testosterone levels. In fact, the organisation is seeking to define and verify sex.

Testosterone is one of the key factors that determine anatomic sex and, as its levels rise, an individual’s sexual characteristics become increasingly masculine. But at what specific point on this spectrum does a woman become a man? Any line drawn to segregate males and females will be arbitrary. Moreover, the definition of sex is evidently complicated, given that genetic, gonadal, and anatomic sex can be independent of each other in intersex individuals.

When athletes are segregated into male and female classifications, those in the middle of the spectrum, or those who are intersex, will inevitably be treated differently compared to non-intersex athletes.

By definition, intersex individuals do not fit into the binary constructs of the male and female sexes. It is therefore problematic to think of intersex athletes simply as females with an inborn sporting advantage due to their increased testosterone levels.

 Striking a balance between sporting integrity and intersex rights

 One proposed solution is the creation of a third classification in sports. However, such a decision would risk alienating athletes with DSDs, as for some their intersexuality does not become known until puberty or even during adulthood.

They may have been raised as a certain sex their entire life, and therefore forcing them to compete in a completely separate category of competition would be both unfair and unethical. Additionally, the terms ‘DSD’ and ‘intersexuality’ broadly cover many different types of biological variations, making it hugely problematic to subject all intersex athletes to standardized regulations.

There is no simple answer to this debate, and a satisfactory solution will not be found in the foreseeable future; our scientific knowledge simply remains lacking, especially in the field of athletic performance. A good first step would be to eliminate the non-physiological contributors to performance differences between the sexes by increasing both the investment in and marketing of women’s sport.

As a result, the physiological contributors to performance differences would be better elucidated and thus inform policy making. Meanwhile, World Athletics must address the ambiguities and contradictions in its existing DSD regulations.

But most importantly, the underlying science behind intersexuality and the nitty-gritty details of DSD rules need to be better communicated to the general public. Only then can we have meaningful conversations that strive towards the most fair and ethical way to classify athletes according to their abilities.

Source: varsity.co.uk

Caster Semenya cleared to compete

Two times 800m Olympic gold medallist, Caster Semenya will be allowed to compete without restriction until the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland has passed judgment on a new IAAF now World Athletics ruling.

The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) ruled that the World Athletics could implement a regulation that would require Semenya to take medication to lower her testosterone levels in order to compete against women in track events ranging from 400 meters to a mile.

However, the three times world champion in 800m has continued to challenge the ruling and lodged an appeal in Switzerland last week.

The 28-year-old asked the Swiss Federal Supreme Court to set aside the decision in its entirety.

It has now been confirmed that the IAAF must suspend its implementation of the regulations until the Swiss Supreme Court, which will receive submissions from the body, has made a ruling.

Semenya, who ruled out retiring after winning the 800 at the Diamond League event in Doha last month, two days after the CAS ruling was announced, will be able to compete for the time being.

“I am thankful to the Swiss judges for this decision,” she said in a statement released Monday. “I hope that following my appeal I will once again be able to run free.”

Dorothee Schramm, Swiss counsel for Semenya, said: “The Swiss Supreme Court has granted welcome temporary protection to Caster Semenya. This is an important case that will have fundamental implications for the human rights of female athletes.”

Road Kings Kitwara, Oloititip , Kabuu Complete Doping Ban Race

Sammy Kitwara and Nicholas Kosgei are some of the Kenyan athletes who have completed their doping ban after serving their term that was imposed by the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU).

AIU, the body established by by International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) now World Athletics (WA) in 2017, has managed to conclusively handle 250 doping cases with Kenya among those countries with most banned athletes.

Kitwara, who was banned for anti-doping rule violations with the presence of a Prohibited Substance (Terbutaline) (Article 2.1) was handed 16 months since 17 March 2019 that was completed just as Kosgei, who was banned when he was tested positive for Prohibited Substance (Prednisone) (Article 2.1), 16 months ineligibility from 2 February 2020.

The first Kenya elite athlete to fall under the shock of AIU was 2016 Olympic marathon champion Jemima Jelagat Sumgong in April 2017 and so far AIU has banned 36 Kenyans.

Sumgong, Mercy Jerotich Kibarus and Salome Jerono Biwott were handed the longest banned period for eight years.

Among the thirty-six elite athletes, ten have so far served their full banning sentence and are free to engage in participating in any race in the world.

Two other athletes; Alfred Kipketer and Benjamin Ngandu Ndegwa will have their ban end by the end of this month (November).

Two cases are still at the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) as they are yet to be determined. The athletes, Joyce Chepkirui and Daniel Kinyua Wanjiru have appealed their sentencing.

 Below is the list:  

  1. Suleiman Kipse Simotwo,  Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Norandrosterone) (Article 2.1) 4 years ineligibility from 14 July 2017.
     
  2. Eliud Magut Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Norandrosterone) (Article 2.1), 4 years ineligibility from 14 July 2017.
  1. Lucy Kabuu Wangui, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Morphine) (Article 2.1) Use of a Prohibited Substance/Method (Morphine) (Article 2.2), 2 years ineligibility from 1 August 2018.
     
  2. Samson Mungai Kagia, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (methylprednisolone) (Article 2.1) Use of a Prohibited Substance/Method (methylprednisolone) (Article 2.2), 2 years ineligibility from 14 October 2018.
  1. Hilary Kepkosgei Yego, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Norandrosterone) (Article 2.1), 4 years ineligibility from 27 April 2017: 
  1. Sammy Kitwara, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Terbutaline) (Article 2.1),  16 months ineligibility from 17 March 2019.
  1. Alex Korio Oliotiptip, Whereabouts Failures (Article 2.4), 2 years ineligibility from 19 July 2019.
  1. Philip Cheruiyot Kangogo, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Higenamine) (Article 2.1) Use of a prohibited Substance (Article 2.2), 2 years ineligibility from 31 July 2019.
  1. James Mwangi Wangari, Presence / Use of a Prohibited Substance (Testosterone) (Article 2.1and Article 2.2), 4 years ineligibility from 19 March 2017 DQ results from 19 March 2017.
  1. Nicholas Kiptoo Kosgei, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Prednisone) (Article 2.1), 16 months ineligibility from 2 February 2020.
  1. Alfred Kipketer, Whereabouts Failures (Article 2.4), 2 years ineligibility from 26 November 2019.
  1. Benjamin Ngandu Ndegwa, Presence of a Prohibited Substance (Nandrolone) (Article 2.1), 4 years ineligibility from 17 November 2017: DQ results: 6 June 2015 to 17 November 2017 

Russian high jumper blames officials for doping suspension

High jumper Danil Lysenko, suspended for anti-doping violations in a case that rattled Russian sport, has admitted guilt for his offences but said he blames the athletics federation for a plan to forge documents to try to evade punishment.

Lysenko, silver medallist at the 2017 World Athletics Championships, was provisionally suspended in 2018 after recording three whereabouts failures within a 12-month period, once missing a doping test and twice failing to provide his whereabouts to anti-doping authorities.

The aftermath plunged Russia’s athletics federation, suspended since 2015 for mass doping across the sport, into more turmoil after senior federation officials became embroiled in a scheme to forge medical documents and provide false explanations to justify Lysenko’s violations.

“Of course I could have said no, but I didn’t,” Lysenko, whose suspension ends in August next year, told Reuters. “I listened to the bosses and decided to do as they said.”

The 24-year-old said he had been negligent on reporting his whereabouts and had in no way attempted to conceal the use of banned substances. He also said he regretted going along with what he referred to as the federation’s plan to “help him”.

When asked to comment on Lysenko’s claim it was the federation’s idea to forge the documents, Dmitry Shlyakhtin, the federation’s president at the time, told Reuters: “Let that remain on his conscience for the rest of his life. Until the grave!” He did comment further.

Shlyakhtin received a four-year suspension over the case.

The conspiracy unravelled when the Monaco-based Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU), which oversees integrity issues in the sport, questioned the information provided by Lysenko.

The Moscow clinic that allegedly treated Lysenko for suspected appendicitis – the original reason provided for not entering his whereabouts in an online system that allows doping control officers to locate athletes – did not exist. The timeline of a car accident to justify another violation did not stand up to scrutiny.

Lysenko did not initially tell investigators the truth because he feared for his safety if he implicated senior federation officials. He later assisted investigators in bringing charges against some officials, which led to his suspension being shortened by two years.

Five federation officials, including Shlyakhtin, were suspended over the case.

Lysenko’s coach, Evgeny Zagorulko, was also provisionally suspended. His lawyers submitted a request to the Lausanne-based Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) to have his suspension revised in light of his assistance to investigators. Zagurolko died in April, before the court could make a ruling.

In November 2019 the case prompted World Athletics, the sport’s international governing body, to stop authorising Russians to compete internationally as neutral athletes.

It later relaunched that process but fined the federation $10 million and limited the number of Russians eligible to compete in athletics at the Tokyo Olympics to 10.

“I’m certainly aware that innocent athletes have suffered because of this situation,” said Lysenko, the 2018 world indoor champion. “I’m very sorry.”

‘THE WHOLE TRUTH’

At an athletics facility in Moscow last month, Lysenko effortlessly cleared 2.15 metres – an impressive jump for someone who drives a truck for a living.

The athlete who cleared 2.32 m to win silver at the 2017 championships sits in traffic all day, running errands for a construction company in the Moscow region. Earlier in the pandemic, he worked as a food delivery courier.

Despite not having trained in months, Lysenko is still aiming to compete at the Olympics and break the world record of 2.45 m.

“I understand that there is a lot of work to do on my technique,” Lysenko said. “I’m not in the shape I used to be.”

Lysenko considered quitting his job to train full-time in the last year of his suspension but his financial situation has not allowed it.

“I need to find money to live, to buy food,” said Lysenko.

To compete internationally after his suspension, Lysenko would still need to be cleared by World Athletics.

 

CAS overturns fine imposed on UAE Athletics president

President of the UAE Athletics Federation Ahmad Al Kamali has failed to overturn his six month’s ban at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) for gifting watches to delegates in an attempt to win votes.

The Athletics Integrity Unit had provisionally suspended Al Kamali from any athletics-related activities October last year, preventing him from standing in election for the vice president’s role at World Athletics.

This was in breach of Article C5 (21) of the World Athletics Code of Ethics, relating to the behavior of candidates for elected positions. This was upheld by the CAS, but it cleared Al Kamali of breaching Article D2 (26) which concerns gifts and other benefits.

The court said that this was because the gifts were “not of more than nominal value”. As a result, its panel “reduced the sanctions proportionally by setting aside the fine”.

Al Kamali admitted giving watches to the delegates but said the retail value of the gifts did not exceed $40 to $50 (£30-£37).

Nesta Carter tests positive AGAIN

Jamaica’s Olympic champion Nesta Carter has tested positive again and faces an anti-doping hearing next week.

The first positive doping test caused Usain Bolt to be stripped of his Beijing 2008 Olympic 4x100m relay gold.

The Chairman of the Jamaica Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel and the sprinter’s lawyer Stuart Stimpson confirmed. “We have a matter with Nesta Carter … We do have a disciplinary hearing that was referred to me by Independent Anti-doping Disciplinary Panel (IADP),” His legal representative Stuart Simpson however declined to give details on the substance or nature of the positive test.

The IADP will be headed by Kent Gammon and will also feature Dr Japheth Ford and Heron Dale, but the hearing, referred to the body by the Jamaica Anti-Doping Commission, will be conducted virtually because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

This Anti-doping violation comes three years after Carter lost his appeal at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) against the International Olympic Committee’s decision to strip him and the rest of the Jamaica men’s sprint relay team, comprising Bolt, Asafa Powell and Michael Frater, of their gold medals from the 2008 Beijing Games.

The World champion issued a press release in August, saying he had retired due to a private medical condition which had hindered him from training and competing since March 2021. He indicated at the time that a medication prescribed by his doctor to treat the condition violated anti-doping rules and as such he had chosen his health over athletics.

Carter, turns 36 years old on Monday, is the ninth fastest man of all time, and fourth fastest Jamaican over 100m, with a personal best of 9.78 seconds.

Alberto Salazar four years doping ban upheld

Former American track coach Alberto Salazar’s four-year suspension has been upheld by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

The 63-year-old was banned two years ago for a series of doping violations by the US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) but appealed against the decision.

Salazar ran the Nike Oregon Project , based in Beaverton, Oregon.

It was established in 2001 and was the home of British four-time Olympic champion Mo Farah.

Farah has not been accused of doping, and left the Oregon Project in 2017.

A BBC Panorama film revealed last year that Farah was questioned about his relationship with Salazar by US investigators in 2015, but he has never failed a doping test, nor been accused of doping. Salazar also coached Dutch runner Sifan Hassan, who took triple medals at the just concluded Tokyo 2020 in the 1500m, 5000m and 10,000m. It eventually resulted in bans for both Salazar and Nike endocrinologist Dr Geoffrey Brown, announced in October 2019.

Before he became a coach, Salazar was one of the most talented distance runners of his generation, winning the New York City marathon in 1980, 1981 and 1982. He is also famous for the ‘Duel in the Sun’ at the Boston Marathon in 1982.

Caster Semenya’s lawyers want answers from World Athletics after ‘misleading’ study stopped her competing

Caster Semenya’s lawyers have questioned why World Athletics have waited until after the Tokyo Olympics before releasing a bombshell report that admits the findings that triggered controversial regulations banning women with naturally elevated testosterone from international events are “misleading”.

Semenya was not allowed to defend her double Olympic 800 metres title in Tokyo under rules prohibiting athletes with Differences of Sexual Development (DSD) from competing at distances from 400m to one mile unless they take hormone-lowering medication.

But World Athletics are facing fresh calls from her legal representatives to scrap the regulation after the governing body’s scientists admitted their findings are based on evidence that was “exploratory, nothing else”.

That ruling was based on evidence published by two World Athletics scientists in 2017, which found a performance increase in females with high testosterone levels over those with low levels of 1.8 per cent for 800m and 2.7 per cent for 400m.

However, the British Journal of Sports Medicine – which published the original evidence – has now released a “correction” to that 2017 paper, causing campaigners to argue the rules should be ditched immediately. Semenya’s lawyers have also questioned why it was not released until days after the Olympics concluded.

Discussing potential links between high levels of testosterone and improved performance in women, Stephane Bermon, director of World Athletics’ Health and Science Department, and his predecessor Pierre-Yves Garnier, wrote: “To be explicit, there is no confirmatory evidence for causality in the observed relationships reported. We acknowledge that our 2017 study was exploratory.”

They add: “With this in mind, we recognise that statements in the paper could have been misleading by implying a causal inference.

“Specifically, ‘Female athletes with high fT [testosterone] levels have a significant competitive advantage over those with low fT in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault.’

“This statement should be amended to: ‘High fT levels in female athletes were associated with higher athletic performance over those with low fT in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault.’”

The scientists conclude that their findings are “on a lower level of evidence” and should be viewed as “exploratory, nothing else, that is, not confirmatory or evidence for a causal relationship.”

Semenya was absent from the recent Tokyo Olympics after unsuccessful challenges against the regulations at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) and Switzerland’s supreme court. She is currently awaiting a hearing at the European Court of Human Rights, although World Athletics has argued it would not be bound by any ruling dished out. The new report, however, raises serious questions about why this clarification was not made before the recent Olympic Games, which concluded just nine days before it was made public.

“This is very significant new information,” Semenya’s lawyer Gregory Nott, of Norton Rose Fulbright, told Telegraph Sport.

“We are in the midst of the European Court of Human Rights case and will be discussing with our London QC and the whole legal team how to introduce the information into the proceedings.

“World Athletics have recently given notice of their wish to intervene in the European Court of Human Rights proceedings and we would hope that they will now support setting aside the regulations.

“It is more than surprising that World Athletics did not reveal this evidence before the recent Tokyo Olympics and allow Caster to defend her 800m title.”

Roger Pielke Jr, one of three scientists who published a 2019 International Sports Law Journal paper arguing the original World Athletics evidence was “flawed”, also said the latest admission meant the rules should be suspended immediately.

“Corrections are common in research, as scientists are human and make mistakes, like anyone else,” he said. “But one of the most important features of science is that it is self-correcting, and mistakes are identified, admitted and corrected.

“But the correction published today is not simply the admission of an error in an inconsequential paper, it is an admission of error by World Athletics in the only empirical analysis which underpins its eligibility regulations for female athletes. The implications are massive.”

He added: “The correction offered today provides a very public test of the integrity of World Athletics. The organisation chose to base its regulation on a set of scientific claims. It now admits that those claims were wrong and potentially misleading.

“Doing the right thing in support of the athletes that it represents means changing course when the facts warrant.”

America’s triple Olympic champion Tianna Bartoletta said: “Improve the studies. And let that govern the policy. That’s not what they did though. And that’s what I’ve been angry about.

“I believe in not manipulating science, and I will accept what it tells me even if my heart feels differently. From the beginning they wanted a specific outcome and that’s not right.”

The Telegraph has contacted World Athletics for comment.

World Athletics president Seb Coe earlier this month said Christine Mboma’s surprise Olympic 200m silver medal showed the governing body was right to crack down on women with naturally elevated testosterone levels.

In April, Namibian 18-year-old Mboma ran the second-fastest 400m time in the world this year, only to then be told a fortnight before the Tokyo Games that she was banned from contesting the event due to her DSD status.

She made a late switch to the 200m and broke the world under-20 record with a jet-heeled late surge in the final to claim Olympic silver in Tokyo.

“It was pretty observable that [Mboma’s] last 30 or 40 metres were impactful,” said Coe. “But, actually, I think that vindicated the decision about the 400m. If you are finishing a 200m like that, it supports the judgement that was made.”

Upholding the rules in 2019, the CAS admitted the regulations were “discriminatory” and it had “serious concerns” over their application. However, it ruled that “such discrimination is a necessary, reasonable and proportionate means… of preserving the integrity of female athletics”.

Source: telegraph.co.uk

Great Britain could lose Tokyo Olympics silver medal after CJ Doping suspension

British sprinter CJ Ujah has been suspended after testing positive for a banned substance – and it could mean bad news for Team Great Britain.

Ujah, 27, was the lead-off runner in Team GB men’s 4x100m relay team who won silver at Tokyo 2020 Olympics earlier this month.

He has been provisionally suspended from competition, Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) said.

According to the AIU, Ujah, who is the British champion over 100m, tested positive for ostarine and S-23, both of which are listed as prohibited substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

The sprinter’s positive test could also mean bad news for his Team GB team-mates

World Athletics Anti-Doping rules state that where an athlete who has committed an ADRV ran as member of a relay team: “The relay team shall be automatically disqualified from the event in question, with all resulting consequences for the relay team, including the forfeiture of all titles, awards, medals, points and prize and appearance money.”

If proven, Team GB men’s entire 4x100m relay team, consisting of Ujah, Richard Kilty, Zharnel Hughes and Nethaneel Mitchell-Blake, would be stripped of their silver medals.

However, all hope is not lost for Ujah, who has yet to comment on the findings.

He can still request analysis of the B-sample – kept for storage while the A-sample is analysed.

Should that confirm an Adverse Analytic Finding, his case will be referred to the Anti-Doping Division of the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

The International Testing Agency (ITA) said: “The Cas ADD will consider the matter of the finding of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation [ADRV] and the disqualification of the men’s 4 x 100 relay results of the British team”.

Ujah, along with Kilty, Hughes and Mitchell-Blake, only narrowly missed out on winning gold in Tokyo.

The quartet were leading going into the final 100m but unable to hold off the Italian challenge as anchor runner Mitchell-Blake was headed on the line by Filippo Tortu.

Team GB missed out on gold by just a hundredth of a second.